Full-fat extruded soybean grits is a high protein and energy feed.
The extrusion of full-fat grain (hydrothermal treatment) enables deactivation of anti-nutritive substances in a very simple, safe and fast way. The procedure is safe in terms of preserving the content of crude proteins which are partially denatured and, what is also of great importance, preserving the amino acids, especially lysine, which is very important for the preservation of health of both people and animals and also achievement of good results in animal husbandry.
One soy grain contains 35 – 40% of high biological value protein, all the essential amino acids with the ratio similar to that of animals (animal proteins). The high solubility of soy protein provides uninterrupted digestibility and high nutritional value. Nonetheless, soybean also contains a range of other anti-nutritional substances. That is the reason why it cannot be used in its raw state in the diet of non-ruminants. Apart from deactivation of anti-nutritive substances, extruding of soybean within the thermal processing also leads to the process of desired protein denaturation. Adding temperature to protein material leads to denaturation of proteins, in particular, conformation change without peptide bonds breakage. The changes start already at 60 - 70º C.
Thermal treatment during the process of extrusion increases the nutritional value of proteins for two reasons:
- Denaturation allows the enzyme function – easier digestion.
- Anti-nutritional substances are inactivated.
Full-fat soybean grits – Soybean meal?
In comparison with soybean meal the proteins of full-fat soybean grits have a range of advantages in animal nutrition. The reason for this is obtaining soybean meal in a technological extraction process at extremely high temperatures, with the introduction of organic solvents, usually hexane, whose residues are still present in the meal. At such high temperatures amino acids often react with carbohydrates, thus making lysine unusable. Full-fat soybean does not contain solvent residues as it is obtained through the process of extrusion in HTST treatment (high temperature, short time). In addition, it should be noted that soybean meal is freed from high quality oil (its content is reduced to under 0.5%).
The manipulation of high fat content nutrients is lighter than when fat is added to the compound, no matter whether it is vegetable or animal fat, because the oil in soybean full-fat grits is concrete, physically bound, so there are no technical problems in terms of storage, dosing and mixing additional fats.
Raw soybean oil and soybean cake are obtained by pressing full-fat extruded grits. Pressing splits oil droplets and allows the drainage – oil extraction without adding solvents.
One whole grain of soya contains 17 – 24% high quality oil, as it contains 61% polyunsaturated fatty acids and only 15% saturated. It is rich in vitamin E which is one of the strongest natural antioxidants, as well as lecithin and choline, which are essential for a favorable lipid metabolism and the health of liver and central nervous system.
Tenen’s soybean cake obtained through the process of extrusion pressing contains approximately 42% high quality proteins and up to 7% oil. Comparing to soybean meal, the cake proteins have a range of advantages in animal nutrition. The reason for this is obtaining soybean meal in a technological extraction process at extremely high temperatures, with the introduction of organic solvents, usually hexane, whose residues are still present in the meal. There are no solvent residues in soybean cake, as it is obtained through drainage process in HTST treatment (high temperature, short time). In addition, it should be noted that soybean meal is freed from high quality oil (its content is reduced to under 0.5%).
From amino acid composition of Tenen’s soybean cake (‘SP Laboratory’ analysis) we emphasise a high content of lysine 2.78%, methionine + cystine 1.13%, threonine 1.62%, valine 1.85%. The energy value is ME pigs 2890 Kcal / kg i ME Poultry 3680 Kcal / kg.
Introduction of soybean cake into the farm animal diet compound has improved the production results by 10% (weight gain, number and bulk of eggs and milk; reproductive conditions have been improving as well) in comparison with the compound based on soybean meal. At the same time, food consumption per unit of production (conversion) has also been reduced. In lactating cows extrusion provides greater share of so called ‘by pass’ proteins which pass unchanged through pre-stomachs and are better used in small intestines. All of the aforementioned clearly indicates economical validity of introducing soybean cake in farm animal nutrition.
Soybean cake is of very pleasant taste and smell, its crunchiness is quite characteristic. It is quite easily poured into baskets, silos and feeders, thanks to its low humidity and granulated structure, and when handling, dust practically does not exist. The hygienic quality of this nutrient is excellent, as it is partially sterilized during the process of extrusion pressing and it can be undoubtedly said that all the vegetative forms of microorganisms are eliminated.
One wholegrain of soya contains 17 – 24% of high quality oil. It is rich in vitamin E which is one of the strongest natural antioxidants, as well as lecithin and choline, which are essential for a favorable lipid metabolism and the health of liver and central nervous system.
Soybean oil obtained by pressing extruded full-fat soya is of great nutritive value. It is not freed from lecithin. Soybean oil has an extremely favourable fatty acid structure, as it consist of as much as 61% polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic), 24% monounsaturated acids (oleic) and only 15% saturated fatty acids (palmitic). It can be said that this is the only type of oil that contains sufficient amounts of linoleic and lonolenic acids (essential fatty acids).
In addition, soybean oil contains high level of LECITHIN, phospholipids that are essential for the metabolism of fats, as well as CHOLINE, important for the health of liver and central nervous system of animals and humans. Everyday consumption provides the organism with fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins.
Different granular feeds can be extruded in order to achieve better nutritional properties and better production results.
Cereals are basic energy nutrients for all types and categories of farm animals. However, energy efficiency is different, depending on the type of animals and cereals.
Thermal processing of cereals (extrusion) leads to starch gelatinisation. Through this process, starch macromolecule is divided in amylose and amylopectin. Amylose obtained in this way is much more accessible for endogenous enzyme amylase and therefore, more digestible, which provides a more comprehensive use of food energy input.
Of course, the biggest effects are produced in cases where amylase enzyme is the scarcest, more precisely, it is in piglets, in nutrition and decision stage. Extruded cereals in the diet of ruminants provide so called ‘by pass’ energy and proteins, which are essential in the diet of dairy cows.
So, the extrusion process does not lead to the increase of metabolic energy of nutrients but it does lead to the change of starch form which is the main source of energy for ruminants.